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描述
LISP语言(LISP,List Processing的缩写)是一种早期开发的、具有重大意义的表处理语言。它适用于符号处理、自动推理、硬件描述和超大规模集成电路设计等。特点是,使用表结构来表达非数值计算问题,实现技术简单。LISP语言已成为最有影响,使用十分广泛的人工智能语言。20世纪50年代中期,在大多数计算机处理的都是数值数据等,包括语言学、心理学和数学领域上一些人们开始对人工智能产生了兴趣。觉得必须实现共同需要的一个方法,使计算机能够处理链表中的符号数据,允许语言的处理、信息存入和检索、定理证明的过程机器化。IBM是首先对人工智能开发有兴趣的商业机构之一。 1958年夏天,来自麻省理工学院的人工智能研究先驱约翰·麦卡锡(John McCarthy)参与IBM资讯研究部的工作,研究符号运算及应用需求。可是,IBM旗下的Fortran表处理语言却未能支援符号运算的递归、条件表达式、动态存储分配及隐式回收等功能。John McCarthy于1958年秋季回到麻省理工学院后,和Marvin Minsky组成了人工智能项目。开展一个表处理软件系统来实现McCarthy提出建议采纳者程序的工作,尔后推动了表处理语言LISP的产生。
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